An alternative to surgical closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) is the use of specially made devices to close the ASD. These devices are implanted using special delivery system through a catheter during cardiac catheterization. This is considered a less invasive method than open heart surgery.
The larger PDA results in increased workload of heart, and also carries a risk of bacterial infection. PDA can be closed by inserting a device through the blood vessel in groin, a non-surgical method called percutaneous transcatheter approach.